Formal lists of job titles, job descriptions and corresponding rates that are utilized within a given client program. Rate cards often include distinctions by experience levels, geographic locations, certifications, and other items. They are typically expressed in terms of final bill rates, markups on wages, or a combination of the two; and can be expressed in terms of ranges or absolute values. Requirements for suppliers to recruit at or below rate card are common. Rate cards must typically be reviewed annually or bi-annually to stay aligned with changing market conditions.